When

16th to 20th September, 2018 09:00 am - 11:59 pm

Website: Hennig 2018

Visit the official meeting website

Where

Museu Blau - Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona
Plaça Leonardo da Vinci, 4-6, 08019 Barcelona, Spain
See map

Subscribe & Share

Download   Sessions   Featuring   Grid   List

Sunday, 16th September 2018

Time Vestibul at Museu Blau
4:00 pm Registration desk open at Room 3
4:20 pm
4:40 pm
5:00 pm Welcome drinks and appetizers at Restaurant
5:20 pm
5:40 pm
6:00 pm
6:20 pm
6:40 pm
7:00 pm
7:20 pm
7:40 pm

Monday, 17th September 2018

Time Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Vestibul at Museu Blau Posters
9:00 am Meeting opening    
9:20 am What can macroevolutionary analyses tell us about the causes of global biodiversity gradients?
 Attend Link

What can macroevolutionary analyses tell us about the causes of global biodiversity gradients?

What can macroevolutionary analyses tell us about the causes of global biodiversity gradients?
Species richness is highly non-random in space, and some geographic regions contain a much greater share of planetary biodiversity than other regions. For example, far more species of organisms are typically found in the tropics than in temperate and polar regions. This latitudinal diversity gradient has captivated naturalists for centuries and has been termed Earth's "first-order" biodiversity pattern. However, the evolutionary and ecological causes of this and other large-scale diversity gradients remain poorly understood. I discuss several ways in which macroevolutionary analysis can provide new insights into the causes of global diversity gradients. I focus in particular on the contribution of differential speciation and extinction rates to species richness patterns, and I explore what we can learn about these rates from phylogenetic trees. I use a phylogenetic framework to provide illustrative examples of the relationship between latitude, species richness, and evolutionary diversification in several groups of organisms. Finally, I discuss ways in which the relationship between evolutionary diversification and species diversity may vary across the Tree of Life.

By:
Dan Rabosky
September 17, 2018, 9:20 am to 10:20 am
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Keynote Type: Talk
   
9:40 am    
10:00 am    
10:20 am *Tempo and mode of diversification in the diurnal geckos of the genus Pristurus
 Attend Link

*Tempo and mode of diversification in the diurnal geckos of the genus Pristurus

Island colonists are often assumed to experience higher levels of phenotypic diversification than their continental sister taxa. In this study, we tested the "Island Effect" using a group of geckos distributed in Arabia, the Horn of Africa and Socotra. We first delimited species boundaries to assess the real diversity within the genus Pristurus. Then, we generated a time-calibrated phylogeny including all independent evolutionary lineages in which three ecologically relevant phenotypic traits were mapped: body size, limb and head dimensions. We explored if island and mainland taxa shared the same morphospace and if they differed in their tempo and mode of evolution. Moreover, we examined if habitat use was correlated with morphological change, reconstructing the ancestral habitat states across the phylogeny to compare the level of phenotypic disparity and the morphological trait evolution between habitats. We found 24 new candidate species within the genus. Surprisingly, insular species do not present higher levels of morphological diversification than continental groups. Instead, habitat occupation provides insight into trait evolution, which appear to have experienced similar evolutionary patterns –larger body sizes, longer limbs and larger head sizes– in the more specialized ground-dwelling forms. Indeed, increased rates of body size evolution among this particular group are consistent with a response to newly available niches and thus, to ecological opportunity.

By:
Marc Simo-Riudalbas
September 17, 2018, 10:20 am to 10:40 am
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: The rhythms of life symposium Type: Student Talk
   
10:40 am   Coffee break  
11:00 am    
11:20 am    
11:40 am *An integrative approach to the systematics and diversification of the geckos of the Ptyodactylus hasselquistii species complex
 Attend Link

*An integrative approach to the systematics and diversification of the geckos of the Ptyodactylus hasselquistii species complex

An accurate knowledge of species diversity is critical for a wide range of studies on evolutionary biology. Species delimitation methods have been enhanced with the incorporation of coalescence theory, the conceptual advancements regarding the species concept and the abundance of molecular data. Coalescence-based methods provide a rigorous framework for exploring boundaries between phylogenetic lineages and they are used in a growing amount of studies, perhaps with a special interest when studying morphologically conserved and/or allopatric species. That is the case of the <em>Ptyodactylus hasselquistii</em> species complex - a group of relatively large geckos from northeastern Africa and large parts of Arabia in which recent studies have shown high levels of genetic variability that contrast with a conserved morphology. Here, we assembled a geographically comprehensive set of samples covering the entire range of this complex, comprising molecular and morphological datasets. We analysed these datasets with coalescence-based methods and multivariate analyses in order to unravel their relationships and degree of phenotypic diversification. Our results suggest that there is still a high level of undiscovered diversity within <em>Ptyodactylus</em>, especially in the mountainous regions of southwestern Arabia. We hypothesise that the high level of specialisation exploiting the same rocky environments is a key to understand how diversity has been generated and maintained in this group of geckos.

By:
Hector Tejero-Cicuendez
September 17, 2018, 11:40 am to 12:00 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: The rhythms of life symposium Type: Student Talk
   
12:00 pm *Systematics and biogeography of nearctic sawflies in the nematine genus Pristiphora (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)
 Attend Link

*Systematics and biogeography of nearctic sawflies in the nematine genus Pristiphora (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)

Unlike most living groups, sawflies are most diverse in northern regions, with species richness declining toward the tropics. In particular, the diverse subfamily Nematinae makes up much of the herbivorous insect fauna in boreal, subarctic, and arctic regions. One hypothesis states that Holarctic sawfly diversity may be explained by historic cyclical climatic changes, leading to expansion and contraction of species distributions, with subsequent speciation. In addition to these cyclical changes – and of particular interest in the context of the nearctic sawfly fauna – episodes of historic connections between North America and Eurasia have facilitated a number of dispersals between the two landmasses (e.g. via the Bering Land Bridge). Evaluation of such patterns is hampered by incomplete and outdated taxonomy, which my work addresses through an integrative approach combining a systematic revision of Nearctic <em>Pristiphora</em> with a study of their biogeography. With insights from molecular data and careful taxonomic work, I will present preliminary results of phylogenetic analyses of the genus, as well as phylogeographic analyses of a few widespread species. I will discuss progress toward understanding the origins and maintenance of sawfly diversity in the Nearctic – especially Northern North America – including points of origin, areas of high diversity, and likely refugia during more recent glaciation events.

By:
Spencer Monckton
September 17, 2018, 12:00 pm to 12:20 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: The rhythms of life symposium Type: Student Talk
   
12:20 pm *Evolution of bioluminescence and light detection in Odontosyllis (Annelida, Syllidae) revealed by phylogenetic and comparative transcriptomics
 Attend Link

*Evolution of bioluminescence and light detection in Odontosyllis (Annelida, Syllidae) revealed by phylogenetic and comparative transcriptomics

Marine worms of the genus <em>Odontosyllis</em> (Annelida, Syllidae) are well known for their spectacular bioluminescent courtship rituals. During the reproductive period, the benthic marine worms leave the ocean floor and swim to the surface to spawn, using bioluminescent light for mate attraction. The courtship behavior has been widely studied, but little is known about the origin and evolution of light production or the underlying genetic mechanisms. Moreover, it has been shown that bioluminescent courtship promotes speciation, and thus, bioluminescence might have had profound impacts in the evolution of <em>Odontosyllis</em>. Here, we used a multilocus dataset to infer phylogenies using gene concatenation and multispecies coalescent species-tree methods, to investigate the speciation patterns and evolution of <em>Odontosyllis</em> and the origins of bioluminescence. Our analyses support a single origin of bioluminescence, which seems to have triggered a rapid radiation, increasing speciation rates and lineage divergence through sexual selection. Additionally, we analyzed the transcriptomes of two bioluminescent species, <em>O. enopla</em> and <em>O. phosphorea</em>, and characterized putative opsins (visual pigment proteins involved in light detection), making inferences about their function and evolutionary implications. Our results offer new insights into the evolution of bioluminescence and light detection in an interesting group of marine annelids providing a snapshot of the underlying molecular mechanisms.

By:
Aida Verdes-Gorin
September 17, 2018, 12:20 pm to 12:40 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: The rhythms of life symposium Type: Student Talk
   
12:40 pm Phylogenomics of demosponges and the evolution of the molecular toolkits for biosilicification
 Attend Link

Phylogenomics of demosponges and the evolution of the molecular toolkits for biosilicification

Among the four classes of Porifera, three of them construct siliceous skeletons but through divergent enzymatic pathways. In demosponges, the silicification occurs by polycondensation of silica using silicases around an axial filament formed by a protein called silicatein. Most demosponges can produce more than one spicule type, in some occasions with convoluted ornamentations. Some demosponges have more than one silicatein gene (with highly divergent evolutionary pathways). In calcareous sponges, the many alpha-carbonic anhydrases present in the group are linked to the production of several spicule types. Whether the diversity of siliceous spicules is linked to larger molecular complexity in demosponges, is completely unknown. Here we used complete mitochondrial genomes of 100 sponges (19 newly assembled from transcriptome datasets) to create a sound phylogenetic framework to explore the evolution of biosilicification within demosponges. The enzymes required to produce siliceous spicules including silicases, silicateins, and silicon transporters, were screened within our transcriptomic and other datasets available and their expression quantified using bowtie2/RSEM. Character reconstructions were performed in our datasets to understand the evolution of the molecular machinery. Finally, we used BAMM tools to detect and quantify heterogeneity in evolutionary rates across sponges with diverging silicification levels, in terms of number of spicule types and spicule total content.

By:
Ana Riesgo
September 17, 2018, 12:40 pm to 1:00 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: The rhythms of life symposium Type: Talk
   
1:00 pm Sleeping with my enemy: Insights into the symbiotic relationship between the carnivorous sponge Chondrocladia robertballardi and the annelid Neopolynoe africana
 Attend Link

Sleeping with my enemy: Insights into the symbiotic relationship between the carnivorous sponge Chondrocladia robertballardi and the annelid Neopolynoe africana

Carnivorous sponges of the genus <em>Chondrocladia </em>(family Chondrocladidae) constitute a remarkably diverse group of deep-water organisms with nearly 40 species described so far, occurring in almost all oceans. Carnivorous sponges mostly feed on small crustaceans that are trapped by specialized surface spicules, and are afterwards enveloped by amoebocytes and digested. Although many non-carnivorous sponges are known to have symbiotic relationships with other marine invertebrates, there is only example of symbiosis between a carnivorous sponge (<em>Chondrocladia robertballardi</em>) and an annelid of the family Polynoidae (<em>Neopolynoe africana</em>)<em>.</em> Here we describe the symbiotic relationship between the two species using different approaches: (i) we provide a phylogenetic framework for the polynoid using four different molecular markers, and place the worm within a clade only containing symbiotic species

By:
Sergi Taboada
September 17, 2018, 1:00 pm to 1:20 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: The rhythms of life symposium Type: Talk
   
1:20 pm   Lunch  
1:40 pm    
2:00 pm    
2:20 pm    
2:40 pm    
3:00 pm Diversification in Dictyoptera: the role of eusociality and environmental changes
 Attend Link

Diversification in Dictyoptera: the role of eusociality and environmental changes

Eusociality, Darwin’s special difficulty, has been widely investigated but remains a topic of great debate in organismal biology. Eusocial species challenge existing theories, and the impact of highly integrated societies on diversification dynamics is controversial with opposing assertions and hypotheses in the literature. Here, using phylogenetic approaches in termites – the first group that has evolved eusociality – we assessed the fundamental prediction that eusocial lineages have higher diversification rates than non-eusocial clades. We found multiple lines of evidence that eusociality provided higher diversification as compared to non-eusociality. Besides, building on the rich dictyopteran (termites, cockroaches and praying mantises) fossil record, we investigated how this relatively old insect super-order has been impacted by previous extinction events and whether it has suffered decline of diversity during periods of dramatic environmental changes.

By:
Frederic Legendre
September 17, 2018, 3:00 pm to 3:20 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: The rhythms of life symposium Type: Talk
   
3:20 pm Phylogeny of Spiders and the Evolution of Foraging Webs
 Attend Link

Phylogeny of Spiders and the Evolution of Foraging Webs

We have addressed the phylogenetic relationships of spiders (Araneae), with emphasis on the araneomorph and the ecribellate orb-weaving groups.  We have used a phylotranscriptomic approach based on ca. 2,500 genes from an extensive taxonomic sample. Based on a resolved backbone of spider interrelationships we have inferred the evolution of webs in spiders. Webs are the product of an integrated complex set of characters. Some behaviors involved in web construction are stereotypical and relatively well-understood (e.g., radius construction in orbs) and can be studied as ethological hypotheses of homology across taxa. Although no broadly accepted categorization of web types exists, we have reconstructed the evolution of web architecture by mapping webs on phylogenetic trees. The “standard” methods treat web types as “states” in a multi-state character (orb-web, silk-tube, etc.), as if such “character” were a hypothesis of homology. This heuristic approach is a simplification—as most morphological data matrices are—to address the evolution of a complex set of integrated homologies assessed as a final product (the web). We have used two different coding schemes to categorize spider webs (three and ten states). As in previous analyses of transcriptomic data, the monophyly of cribellate and ecribellate orb-weavers (Orbiculariae) is refuted. Foraging webs have been lost independently multiple times in spiders. The data do not support a single origin of the orb-web.

By:
Gustavo Hormiga
September 17, 2018, 3:20 pm to 3:40 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Open symposium Type: Talk
   
3:40 pm *Evolution of larval characters in dart-poison frogs and their relatives (Dendrobatoidea, Cope, 1865)
 Attend Link

*Evolution of larval characters in dart-poison frogs and their relatives (Dendrobatoidea, Cope, 1865)

Tadpoles are key to understanding the evolutionary history and diversification of anurans.  Several studies have demonstrated that larval morphology is an important source of evidence for evolutionary studies; however, tadpoles are often overlooked and little is known about their anatomy and biology. An example of this problem is the superfamily Dendrobatoidea, for which knowledge of tadpole morphology, ecology, and evolution is extremely limited relative to the extensive knowledge of adults. This study aims to fill this gap by combining a new larval dataset of 392 characters scored from external morphology, chondrocranium, cranial musculature, and buccopharyngeal anatomy with characters from adults (170 characters) and DNA sequences  in a total evidence cladistic analysis of 621 terminals. Analyses were performed in POY using parsimony as the optimality criterion, direct optimization for nucleotide characters, and equal weighting of all transformations. The monophyly of Dendrobatoidea and all its subfamilies and genera was corroborated. Larval characters optimized as unambiguous synapomorphies at different levels, including genera previously recognized solely on the basis of molecular synapomorphies. On the basis of our results, we examine the evolution of several behavioural and developmental character systems, such as oophagy, endotrophy, burrowing, semi-terrestrial behaviour, and carnivory in Dendrobatoidea and in their relatives.

By:
Pedro Dias
September 17, 2018, 3:40 pm to 4:00 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Open symposium Type: Student Talk
   
4:00 pm *Hybridisation as source of genetic variations: a snapshot from Poecilimon bosphoricus species group (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae)
 Attend Link

*Hybridisation as source of genetic variations: a snapshot from Poecilimon bosphoricus species group (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae)

Introduction: A very few recent studies showed that hybridizing lineages rapidly radiate, as the newly gained genes has been tested in gene pool of donating population. Early geneticdata from <i>Poecilimon bosphoricus</i> species group (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae), especially those distributed around Marmara Sea indicate that there is a distinct conflict between gene trees and species trees, thus, it is a candidate group to test assumption of radiation by speciation.
Material and Method: Total DNA was extracted from representative specimens preserved in 96% ethanol and two mitochondrial (cytochrome C oxidase subunits I (COI) and mitochondrial encoded NADH dehydrogenase 2 (NAD2) and two nuclear (internal transcribed spacers 1 (ITS1) and 2 (ITS2)) was amplified via PCR using appropriate primer couples.
Results: We determined 63/234, 112/408 73/299 unique haplotypes/ total sequences for each COI, NAD2 and ITS1-2 respectively. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in paraphyletic species, as a sign of frequent genetic admixture. Time estimation analyses indicated a radiation history correlated with post Messinian period.
Conclusion: (i) Phenotypic species are not discovered in phylogenetic trees and phylogroups correlate with geography, (ii) genetic admixture observed in all three markers and this indicate hybridisation among species, (iii) the land/sea changes around Marmara Sea seems to be the main reason triggered radiation history and hybridisation, and (iv) all these allow us to suggest a radiation via hybridisation for the group.

By:
Ozgul Yahyaoglu
September 17, 2018, 4:00 pm to 4:20 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Understanding diversity through space symposium Type: Student Talk
   
4:20 pm *Incidence and distribution of Wolbachia in scale insects
 Attend Link

*Incidence and distribution of Wolbachia in scale insects

<em>Wolbachia</em> <em>pipientis</em> is a -proteobacteria endosymbiont that mostly lives as a reproductive parasite in many arthropods and nematodes. It is a master manipulator, modifying its hosts’ biology in many ways to increase its vertical (maternal) transmission. Surveys indicate that up to 40% of insect species have at least some members infected by <em>Wolbachia</em>, but not all groups have been investigated yet. Here, we investigate the prevalence and phylogenetic position of <em>Wolbachia</em> strains in scale insects (Coccomorpha). Other hemipteran species are reported to have a high diversity of <em>Wolbachia</em> strains but our knowledge is very limited for scale insects. We screened for <em>Wolbachia</em> infection using PCR of 16S Ribosomal RNA and the <em>Wolbachia</em> specific wsp gene. To date, we have screened 580 samples including 48 genera and 8 subfamilies. Within infected species, the infection rate varied from 10%-100%. According to the phylogenetic analysis, all <em>Wolbachia</em> strains detected fall within supergroups A and B. In addition to <em>Wolbachia</em>, we have also detected other Proteobacteria including <em>Tremblaya </em>(betaprotobacteria)<em>, Moranella</em> (gammaprotobacteria), <em>Sphingomonas</em> and <em>Rickettsia</em> (alphaprotobacteria). We have detected evidence of horizontal transmission of <em>Wolbachia</em> two between distanced species of scale insects. Based on sequencing results, 14.7% of scale insect species were infected by <em>Wolbachia</em>. Members of Cocccidae family had a higher infection rate (25.8%) than Eriococcidae (15.9%).

By:
Ehsan Sanaei
September 17, 2018, 4:20 pm to 4:40 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Understanding diversity through space symposium Type: Student Talk
   
4:40 pm   Tea  
5:00 pm    
5:20 pm    
5:40 pm   Poster session I Diversity of mosquito species ovipositing in different zones of light intensity within limestone caves in Thailand
 Attend Link

Diversity of mosquito species ovipositing in different zones of light intensity within limestone caves in Thailand

Climate change and human activity impact the geographical and annual distribution and populate abundance on mosquitoes. As natural habitats are reduced, it is hypothesized that mosquitoes may seek refuge in more stable environments such as cave habitats. Therefore, we explored the species diversity of mosquitoes exploiting cave habitats in Thailand. Ten species, belonging to four genera were collected, of which none were considered to be true cave-dwelling species (Troglobiont). The known cavernicolous species, <em>Aedes cavaticus</em> (Reinert), was observed to oviposit outside of the cave and therefore should be categorized as a subtroglophilic species. Other species also were oviposited inside the cave, but should be regarded as trogloxenic species. There was no clear association between environmental factors and mosquito abundance inside four limestone caves, except for <em>Ae</em>. <em>cavaticus</em>, which was positively correlated with rainfall. This study indicated that different biotic or abiotic factors may be involved in mosquito oviposition site selection inside the caves.

By:
Uraiwan Arunyawat
September 17, 2018, 5:40 pm to 6:00 pm
Hall: Posters Track: The rhythms of life symposium Type: Poster
6:00 pm   *Phylogenetic analysis of the Harttia Steindachner, 1877 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae: Loricariinae)
 Attend Link

*Phylogenetic analysis of the Harttia Steindachner, 1877 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae: Loricariinae)

The genus <em>Harttia</em> was described by Steindachner, 1877 and currently consists of 26 species, assuming the second position in relation to the greater intrageneric diversity of Loricariinae. Several hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among the genus of the subfamily were proposed throughout the time. The studies performed agree that <em>Harttia</em> is monophyletic, but there is no consense about the positioning of the genus in relation to the remaining Loricariinae, and neither about the relationships of the subfamily with other Loricariidae. Besides, there is no survey about the relationships among the species of the genus. Therefore, the aim of this study is to provide a phylogenetic analysis of the species of <em>Harttia</em> based on characters of internal (osteology) and external morphology. Until this moment, the matrix comprises 316 characters, and 24 taxa (14 of the ingroup, and 10 of the outgroup). The analisys was performed with the software TNT, using the method of parsimony with new technologies. All characters received the same weight and were treated as non-ordered or additive. The most parsimonious tree presented 1431 steps, consistency index of 0,39 and retention index of 0,47. The genus <em>Harttia</em> was not recovered as monophyletic, and the relationship among its species is not congruente with the geographic distribution of the group. We hope a better resolution with the addition of more taxa, especially of Loricariinae.

By:
Arieli Cherobim
September 17, 2018, 6:00 pm to 6:20 pm
Hall: Posters Track: The rhythms of life symposium Type: Student Poster
6:20 pm   *Comparative analysis and integration of morphological and DNA barcode-based species delimitations: towards a DNA barcode reference library of Iberian spiders
 Attend Link

*Comparative analysis and integration of morphological and DNA barcode-based species delimitations: towards a DNA barcode reference library of Iberian spiders

Despite their abundance and pivotal role in ecosystems, spiders are often neglected in biodiversity conservation policies due to their challenging identification and the subsequent difficulties to generate reliable data. Here we aim to assess the ability of DNA barcodes to delimit and identify spider species. Specifically, we compare the morphology-based identification with the delineations obtained using single-locus delimitation methods based on distances (Refined Single Linkage Analysis, BINs) and on evolutionary criteria (mPTP).



Specimens were sampled using semi-quantitative protocols in oak forests distributed across the Spanish Network of National Parks. We identified 376 morphospecies belonging to 40 families from 8,521 adult specimens. We obtained 3081 DNA barcodes representing 371 species and 5 individuals for each sampled locality.



DNA barcodes were resolved into 440 BINs and 370 mPTP clusters. Of all the morphospecies, 263 and 252 matched the BINs and mPTP clusters, respectively, 70 (BINs) and 36 (mPTP) were divided into two or more clusters, 14 (BINs) and 81 (mPTP) were merged in a single cluster and 11 (BINs) and 6 (mPTP) were partially split and merged with other species in another cluster. In our study we integrate morphological, molecular and geographic data to assign specimens to taxonomic units. Moreover, we generate a DNA barcode library for the Iberian Peninsula that will automatize identification for future ecology studies and monitoring programmes

By:
Marc Domenech
September 17, 2018, 6:20 pm to 6:40 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Understanding diversity through space symposium Type: Student Poster
6:40 pm     *Knocking on the trap-door: unraveling the species boundaries and evolutionary history of western Mediterranean ctenizid trap-door spiders
 Attend Link

*Knocking on the trap-door: unraveling the species boundaries and evolutionary history of western Mediterranean ctenizid trap-door spiders

The trap-door genus <em>Cteniza </em>is an ancient yet poorly diverse lineage that, along with the Aegean <em>Cyrtocarenum</em>, is the only European representative of the mygalomorph family Ctenizidae. It includes three species circumscribed to the Maritime Alps, Calabria and the Tyrrhenian islands. The taxonomy and distribution ranges of the species, however, are contentious.Trap-door spider taxonomy has been traditionally hampered by a conservative morphology, with few yet highly polymorphic variable traits. Molecular based approaches have gained popularity to establish species boundaries in groups of conflicting taxonomy. However, trap-door spiders usually show highly structured populations, which challenge the basic tenets of quantitative delimitation methods.



Here, we use a target multi-locus approach along with relaxed clock models to unravel the history and delimit species in <em>Cteniza. </em>Additionally, we generate RADseq data to investigate fine-scale population genetic structure. Our study uncovers higher species diversity that previously assumed and confirms deep mitochondrial structuring of trap-door spiders. Furthermore, we suggest that <em>Cteniza</em> diversification was driven by the opening of the Western Mediterranean Basin and that the continent was secondarily colonized from the islands. Some biogeographic relationships recovered are at odds with the geology and geographical settings, which may hint at frequent lineage extinction events during the evolution of the genus

By:
Alba Enguidanos
September 17, 2018, 6:40 pm to 7:00 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Understanding diversity through space symposium Type: Student Poster
7:00 pm     A new genus for Neonympha innocentia C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867 with description of five additional new species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) based on morphological and molecular data
 Attend Link

A new genus for Neonympha innocentia C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867 with description of five additional new species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) based on morphological and molecular data

Despite huge and recent efforts made by several researchers working on the subtribe Euptychiina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae), compiling notorious data about this species-rich group in the last years, a lot of systematic and taxonomic work remain to be done within this clade of mostly Neotropical lowland butterfly species. A major taxonomic task, based on phylogenetic analyses using both morphological and molecular data, is to describe new species and new genera to reallocate species not assigned to any described genera. We present <em>New genus</em> <strong>gen. nov.</strong>,  under description to reallocate a species once described in the genus <em>Pharneuptychia</em> - <em>P. innocentia </em>- long known not to belong to <em>Pharneuptychia</em>. This new genus will also include other five new undescribed species recently discovered in field expeditions in the Brazilian open grasslands, known as “cerrado”. Species of <em>New genus</em>  <strong>gen. nov.</strong> occur mainly in high altitudes of Brazilian mountains (up to 1,958 m.a.s.l.), especially in the Espinhaço mountain range and in the Central Plateau. The next step is to understand the phylogenetic position of <em>New genus</em> <em> </em><strong>gen. nov.</strong> within Euptychiina lineages (currently, all phylogenetic analyses recovered <em>P. innocentia</em> as closest relative to <em>Zischkaia pacarus</em> (Peña <em>et al</em>. 2010)). Hopefully, this situation will change with a better and more robust sampling of Euptychiina.

By:
Eduardo Barbosa
September 17, 2018, 7:00 pm to 7:20 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Understanding diversity through space symposium Type: Poster
7:20 pm     *New diversity of cave dwelling flatworms (Tricladida, Dendrocoelidae) in the central Pyrenees
 Attend Link

*New diversity of cave dwelling flatworms (Tricladida, Dendrocoelidae) in the central Pyrenees

The Pyrenees have been identified as a biodiversity hotspot for subterranean invertebrates, comprising a large amount of endemism. Decades of prospections have allowed the identification of five species of groundwater flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Dendrocoelidae), all of them comprised in the genus <i>Dendrocoelopsis</i> Kenk, 1930, the only linage of dendrocoelids present in the Pyrenees. During speleological explorations in Sistema Arañonera (Huesca, Spain) more cave dwelling planarians were found. The new specimens resembled <i> Dendrocoelopsis brementi</i>, a species that was recorded in a nearby cave and that was also collected for this study. We obtained histological sections and molecular data in order to compare these animals among them and with previous reports. The histological sections showed the existence of differences in the internal anatomy and the phylogenetic analyses point to genetic differentiation, indicating the existence of a new species. It represents the second species of this genus and the third of the family to be reported in the Iberian Peninsula. The speciation of this linage in the Pyrenees is probably due to allopatric phenomena. The original distribution of cave systems gradually eroded, fragmenting the subterranean habitat in smaller units. Today this mountain range is an archipelago of calcareous systems that seems to be a scenario to study the evolution of the subterranean fauna, and also an important habitat to protect

By:
Pau Balart
September 17, 2018, 7:20 pm to 7:40 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Understanding diversity through space symposium Type: Student Poster

Tuesday, 18th September 2018

Time Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Vestibul at Museu Blau Posters Off premises
9:00 am Large scale inference of gene and species phylogenies
 Attend Link

Large scale inference of gene and species phylogenies

Large scale inference of gene and species phylogenies
Phylogenomics today deals with Big Data: abundant but also heterogeneous and noisy data. In principle, the more genomes we sequence, the easier analysing new genomes should be. Frustratingly however, integrating information across genomes of varying quality levels remains conceptually and practically challenging. In the talk, I will first present an evolutionary framework to address this problem, then I will show how this can be used to reconstruct the phylogeny of large gene families. To address the issues of contamination, lateral gene transfer, or hidden paralogy, I will present a process-agnostic method to cluster subsets of genes that have a common evolutionary history. Finally, I will conclude with general thoughts on the challenges of Big Data.

By:
Christophe Dessimoz
September 18, 2018, 9:00 am to 10:00 am
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Keynote Type: Talk
     
9:20 am      
9:40 am      
10:00 am Empirical evaluation of the effect of orthology inference methods in phylogenomic reconstruction
 Attend Link

Empirical evaluation of the effect of orthology inference methods in phylogenomic reconstruction

Phylogenomic reconstruction can be strongly affected by different analytical methodologies. While an increasing scientific effort is being paid to understand how confounding factors can affect phylogenetic inference (such as evolutionary rates, compositional heterogeneity, missing data or model of sequence evolution), little is known about how the different orthology inference methods affect the resulting phylogeny if the same analytical pipeline is followed to infer a tree. In this talk, I will discuss that different methods vary largely in terms of number of orthologs recovered, taxon occupancy per gene and average bootstrap support for the resulting gene trees, and that they can result in variable node support values and conflicting phylogenetic hypotheses. As a consequence, the evaluation of different orthology inference methods should be incorporated as a sensitivity analysis in the phylogenomic reconstruction analytical pipeline.

By:
Rosa Fernandez
September 18, 2018, 10:00 am to 10:20 am
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Big questions big data symposium Type: Talk
     
10:20 am The endocrine control of reproduction through transcriptome analyses: a multi-hormonal model to explain annelids stolonization process
 Attend Link

The endocrine control of reproduction through transcriptome analyses: a multi-hormonal model to explain annelids stolonization process

Stolonization in syllid annelids is a unique way to reproduce in the animal kingdom. During the breeding season, a peculiar structure resembling the adult, called stolon, is formed on posterior segments of the animal. When the stolons mature, they detach from the adult and the gametes are released into the water column. The process has been reported to be under environmental and endogenous control, probably via endocrine regulation. To further understand the reproductive biology of syllids and the molecular toolkit underlying stolonization, Illumina RNA-seq was used in reproductive and non-reproductive individuals of <em>Syllis magdalena</em>, to characterized the gene expression during stolonization. Several genes involved in gametogenesis, immune system, neuronal development, cell proliferation, or steroid metabolism were differentially expressed in the different tissues and conditions analyzed. In addition, several neurohormones, such as <em>methylfarnesoate</em>, <em>dopamine</em> and <em>serotonin</em>, resulted as potential candidates to trigger the stolons formation, the correct maturation of gametes and the releasing of stolons from the adult when the gametogenesis is finished. Overall, our results shed light into the putative genes that are orchestrating the onset of gamete formation, and improve our understanding of how some hormones previously reported to be involved reproduction and metamorphosis processes in other invertebrates, seems to be also regulating stolonizing reproduction.

By:
Patricia Alvarez-Campos
September 18, 2018, 10:20 am to 10:40 am
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Big questions big data symposium Type: Talk
     
10:40 am   Coffee break    
11:00 am      
11:20 am      
11:40 am Terrestrialization in land planarians through the lens of transcriptomics
 Attend Link

Terrestrialization in land planarians through the lens of transcriptomics

The biology of land planarians (Platyhelminthes) remains poorly known due to the difficulty in their finding. While most studies focus on marine and freshwater flatworms, little is known about the processes that led these soil-dwelling invertebrates to conquer land from aquatic ancestors within the order (Tricladida). The advent of molecular techniques – particularly RNAseq – is promising to understand such processes. In addition, from these data it is also possible to detect pheromone proteins and other reproductive genes that could be involved in cryptic speciation, so common in land planarians. Thus, we have sequenced for the first time transcriptomes of two land planarians present in the Brazilian Atlantic forest biodiversity hotspot, <em>Cephaloflexa bergi</em> and <em>Imbira marcusi</em>. The comparative analysis of these <em>de novo</em>-assembled transcriptomes, together with eight more freshwater and marine species retrieved from the public databases, revealed the expression of several pheromones such as Temptin and Attractin, the latter resulting in a reliable marker for phylogenetic inference. We also detected expression of CNG1 in land planarians, which encodes a cyclic nuclear-gated (CNG) channel, putatively related to olfactory signalling proteins with specific chemo sensing functions. We present thus the first detailed analysis of the molecular machinery of terrestrialization and chemoreception in land planarians.

By:
Marta Alvarez-Presas
September 18, 2018, 11:40 am to 12:00 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Big questions big data symposium Type: Talk
     
12:00 pm Phylotranscriptomic analyses reveal well-supported relationships in orb-weaving spiders (Araneidae)
 Attend Link

Phylotranscriptomic analyses reveal well-supported relationships in orb-weaving spiders (Araneidae)

As the overall spider phylogeny comes into focus with the next-generation techniques, we turn to family-level questions. Araneidae, the third most speciose spider family, is known by the iconic orbicular snare web most of them weave. Morphology, behavior, amplicon-based molecular analyses, and total evidence analyses encompassing all of these have yielded low and often contradictory relationships for araneids, especially at deeper nodes. We present the first transcriptome-based analysis of a spider family, including 19 araneids, maximizing representation of ‘core’ lineages. We subjected the data to 18 treatments, varying gene occupancy thresholds, orthology selection methods, and tree inference methods. The monophyly of Araneidae and the placement of the main araneid lineages were supported, together with some previously unsound divergences, including support for Theridiosomatidae as sister lineage to Araneidae, Zygiellinae as the earliest diverging subfamily, the placement of Gasteracanthinae as sister group to <em>Cyclosa</em>. Incongruences were relegated to short branches in the clade comprising <em>Cyclosa</em> and its close relatives. We found congruence between most of the completed analyses, with minimal topological effects from method variations. The resulting number of genes by certain combinations of orthology and occupancy thresholds being analyzed had the greatest effect on the optimal trees, with anomalous outcomes recovered from analysis of lower numbers of genes.

By:
Robert Kallal
September 18, 2018, 12:00 pm to 12:20 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Open symposium Type: Talk
     
12:20 pm Levels of resolution of the gastropod phylogeny at different taxonomic levels based on mitochondrial genomes
 Attend Link

Levels of resolution of the gastropod phylogeny at different taxonomic levels based on mitochondrial genomes

Mitochondrial (mt) genomes are widely used to  reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of different animal groups. However, their phylogenetic utility varies with the taxonomic level, achieving best resolution at the species-genus-family levels, and being less efficient at more inclusive hierarchical levels.  Here, we show several examples of phylogenies reconstructed using mt genomes at different taxonomic levels within the class Gastropoda (Mollusca). The phylogeny of the genus <em>Africonus</em>, cone snails endemic to the Cape Verde archipelago, showed maximal resolution and allowed dating major diversification events within the lineage. A phylogeny of the family Conidae is also presented showing an early radiation of the group and a likely double origin of piscivory. The monophyly and phylogenetic relationships of the family Conidae within the superfamily Conoidea were also studied showing the need of a denser taxon sampling to cover the extraordinary lineage diversity of the group. A phylogeny of Caenoggastropoda was reconstructed to infer the relative position of teh Superfamily Conidea and teste the monophyly of the Neogastropoda.  Finally, a phylogeny of the main gastropod orders (Patellogastropoda, Neomphalina, Vetigastropoda, Neritimorpha, Caenogastropoda, and Heterobranchia) is reconstructed using selected taxa and site-heterogeneous models to avoid the well known long-branch attraction bias reported in previous studies using mt genomes to reconstruct the gastropod tree.

By:
Rafael Zardoya
September 18, 2018, 12:20 pm to 12:40 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Understanding diversity through time symposium Type: Talk
     
12:40 pm Anchored Enrichment approaches to resolving relationships in the Chalcidoidea
 Attend Link

Anchored Enrichment approaches to resolving relationships in the Chalcidoidea

Chalcidoidea are a megadiverse superfamily of wasps that rank numerically among the largest groups of insects with an estimated 500,000 species. They are by far the most important group of natural enemies of insects in terrestrial ecosystems, and the majority of successful biological control projects have utilized these minute wasps for partial or complete control of insect pests. Currently, the superfamily is classified into 22 families and 83 subfamilies. A recent temporal divergence study of Chalcidoidea suggested these wasps likely originated in late Jurassic, followed with rapid diversification between late Cretaceous and early Paleogene (75-53 mya). The rapid early radiation of Chalcidoidea has made it difficult to resolve its early evolutionary history using morphological and Sanger-sequencing data. We explore the application of phylogenomic approaches to resolve the backbone phylogeny of this megaradiation of wasps, utilizing transcriptome and anchored hybrid enrichment (AHE) data. We have assembled an AHE dataset for over 250 loci and 500 taxa across Chalcidoidea and the Proctotrupomorpha. Data cleaning is an integral part of our approach to dataset assembly, and can greatly influence the results of the analysis. Our results provide valuable insights into the phylogenetics and character evolution across the superfamily

By:
John Heraty
September 18, 2018, 12:40 pm to 1:00 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Big questions big data symposium Type: Talk
     
1:00 pm Reconstructing a comprehensive tree-of-life for skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) using a combination of anchored phylogenomics, legacy data and museomics
 Attend Link

Reconstructing a comprehensive tree-of-life for skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) using a combination of anchored phylogenomics, legacy data and museomics

Reconstructing a comprehensive tree of life using DNA is one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century in evolutionary biology. While increasingly sophisticated phylogenomic methods permit to produce robust backbones for major clades, the legacy of decades of more traditional DNA sequencing that cover a much greater taxonomic breadth should be at the core of this overarching endeavor. There is therefore a need to bridge these different methodologies to generate data for as many species as possible, including rare or extinct ones only known from Museum collections. Skippers butterflies are a poorly studied butterfly family and their phylogenetic relationships remain largely uncertain. We sequenced nearly 400 loci using Anchored Hybrid Enrichment (AHE) and sampled all tribes and more than 250 genera of skippers to produce a robust phylogenetic backbone for the family. We then used a different AHE probe set to capture legacy genes frequently used in butterfly systematics in the past, and allow the use of published data. Our pipeline also allowed generating large amounts of data for old Museum specimens. Our analyses performed under different optimality criteria converge on a novel, comprehensive and robust phylogenetic hypothesis for skippers. With further sampling efforts on the way, this phylogenetic framework will allow in the long term addressing key evolutionary questions relative to morphology, host-plant use and geographic range evolution in this enigmatic clade.

By:
Emmanuel Toussaint
September 18, 2018, 1:00 pm to 1:20 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Big questions big data symposium Type: Talk
     
1:20 pm   Lunch    
1:40 pm      
2:00 pm      
2:20 pm      
2:40 pm      
3:00 pm *An old love affair: Genomic data reveal past hybridization and suggest an evolution of reinforcement in sympatric populations of two montane grasshoppers from the Iberian Peninsula
 Attend Link

*An old love affair: Genomic data reveal past hybridization and suggest an evolution of reinforcement in sympatric populations of two montane grasshoppers from the Iberian Peninsula

When related species get into secondary contact can undergo hybridization, resulting in admixture of isolated gene pools. However, this event may promote reproductive isolation by increasing the selective pressure against hybrids in a process known as reinforcement. Unfortunately, the study of recently diverged lineages has been compromised by the lack of informative genetic markers. High-throughput technologies eased the generation of genomic information in non-model organisms. Montane grasshoppers of the subgenus <strong><em>Dreuxius </em></strong>(genus <strong><em>Omocestus</em></strong>) are distributed in the Iberian Peninsula and Northwestern Africa. <strong><em>Omocestus minutissimus </em></strong>and <strong><em>O. uhagonii </em></strong>are two related species with partially overlapping distributions in Central Mountain System of the Iberian Peninsula. To reconstruct their evolutionary history, we sampled 21 populations, including 6 sympatric populations from the overlapping area. We obtained 20208 genome-wide SNPs using RAD-seq approach. We then applied coalescent-based modeling techniques to evaluate scenarios of contemporary/past hybridization. Our analyses rejected the hypothesis of contemporary hybridization but revealed symmetrical introgression among sympatric populations. Our results support a scenario where reproductive barriers have probably consolidated because of a reinforcement process that prevents hybridization. Our results add to the body of evidence supporting that speciation-with-gene-flow may be more prevalent in nature that formerly acknowledged.

By:
Vanina Tonzo
September 18, 2018, 3:00 pm to 3:20 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Understanding diversity through time symposium Type: Student Talk
     
3:20 pm *Population genetics and hybrid detection in two Antarctic hoplonemerteans using morphology, mitochondrial markers, and ddRADseq-derived SNPs
 Attend Link

*Population genetics and hybrid detection in two Antarctic hoplonemerteans using morphology, mitochondrial markers, and ddRADseq-derived SNPs

Hybridization processes and reticulate evolution are common in most animal phyla, although studies addressing hybridization in marine fauna are mostly focused on mass spawning reef corals. The evolutionary history of the Antarctic shallow-water benthic species is characterized by repeated modifications of their distributions: contractions and bottlenecks during glacial periods followed by range expansions during interglacial periods, a feature commonly related to allopatric speciation processes. Since the speciation events may have occurred recently, strong barriers to hybridization might not be in place yet. Morphological signals of potential hybridization were detected among two Antarctic shallow-water hoplonemerteans of the genus <em>Antarctonemertes.</em> Here we combined morphological information with two different genetic datasets (the mitochondrial marker COI and ddRADseq-derived SNPs) to study the population structures, gene flow, and hybridization patterns of these two Antarctic nemerteans. Using this wide array of approaches, we were able to identify hybrids across different sampling sites and understand hybridization patterns. We suggest that in the cyclic Antarctic evolutionary context, speciation combined with reticular evolution could be a common evolutionary model in benthic species due to the enhanced chances of hybridization among young sibling clades contacting after diverging allopatrically.

By:
Carlos Leiva
September 18, 2018, 3:20 pm to 3:40 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Understanding diversity through space symposium Type: Student Talk
     
3:40 pm Statistical Evaluation of Monophyly in the ‘Broad-Nosed Weevils’ through Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis Combining Mitochondrial Genome and Single-Locus Sequences (Curculionidae: Entiminae, Cyclominae, and Hyperinae)
 Attend Link

Statistical Evaluation of Monophyly in the ‘Broad-Nosed Weevils’ through Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis Combining Mitochondrial Genome and Single-Locus Sequences (Curculionidae: Entiminae, Cyclominae, and Hyperinae)

Establishing well-supported monophyletic groups is a key requirement for producing a natural classification that reflects evolutionary descent. In a phylogenetic framework this is best achieved through dense taxon sampling and the analysis of a robust character dataset, combined with statistical testing of topological hypotheses. This study assesses the monophyly of tribes and subfamilies within the diverse ‘broad-nosed weevils’ (Curculionidae: Entiminae, Cyclominae and Hyperinae) through analysis of single-locus sequence data for mitochondrial cox1 and rrnL genes, in combination with a ‘backbone’ of complete and near-complete mitochondrial genome sequences. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses incorporating topological constraints for various higher-taxa were statistically tested using the AU, SH, and KH tests, which indicated that three tribes within Entiminae, as presently classified, are not monophyletic. Moderate and high bootstrap support was also consistent with two entimine tribes (Peritelini and Cylydrorhinini) being each recovered as monophyletic in an unconstrained analysis. Furthermore, one genus of cyclomine weevils (Aphela) is recovered outside the clade of ‘broad-nosed weevils’, although its taxonomic placement remains uncertain. It is apparent that the present approach may be hampered by limited taxon sampling in the ‘backbone’ dataset, rendering it difficult for divergent taxa to robustly match to their closest lineages. However, with improved taxon sampling of the mitogenome tree, the general approach can be a useful taxonomic tool for weevils.

By:
Conrad Gillett
September 18, 2018, 3:40 pm to 4:00 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Open symposium Type: Talk
     
4:00 pm Trajectory Search and Refinement in General Phylogenetic Graphs
 Attend Link

Trajectory Search and Refinement in General Phylogenetic Graphs

Generalizations of commonly used graph refinement algorithms (e.g. SPR and TBR) are presented for phylogenetic networks and forests. These procedures are discussed in terms of time complexity and effectiveness and demonstrated with empirical examples.

By:
Ward Wheeler
September 18, 2018, 4:00 pm to 4:20 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Open symposium Type: Talk
     
4:20 pm   Tea    
4:40 pm      
5:00 pm      
5:20 pm   Poster session II *All we know about Dugesia subtentaculata and what we expect from NGS
 Attend Link

*All we know about Dugesia subtentaculata and what we expect from NGS

<em>D. subtentaculata</em> is a paradigmatic species for evolutionary studies. It groups 4 lineages, of which 3 are exclusively sexual (2n). The fourth has a broad distribution and shows populations with different reproduction modes, most by fission (3n and 4n), others are facultative (3n) and a few are exclusively sexual (2n). Using a few markers, PCR and Sanger sequencing, we have been able to demonstrate that fissiparous and sexual populations show different patterns of genetic diversity and mosaicism at intra-individual level, affecting their evolutionary success. These features make of <em>D. subtentaculata</em> a good model to study several evolutionary processes, such as morphological stasis, the effects of reproductive strategy on the genetic background of individuals and the challenges all these features put to delimit species. Nowadays, NGS has become the preferred tool on evolutionary biology. However, its application may be difficult in initial studies on non-model organisms where standard pipelines are many times useless. Most software has been designed for diploids and no algorithms to work with complex genomes and mosaics are available.



In the present work, we show our results using morphologic, karyologic and multilocus data on <em>D. subtentaculata</em> species complex, as well as our recent results using transcriptomic data to characterize the species complex and the evolutionary differences between sexual and asexual populations

By:
Lisandra Benitez-Alvarez
September 18, 2018, 5:20 pm to 5:40 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Big questions big data symposium Type: Student Poster
 
5:40 pm   *Worms’ Prey Digest: diet assessment of two land planarian species using high-throughput sequencing data
 Attend Link

*Worms’ Prey Digest: diet assessment of two land planarian species using high-throughput sequencing data

Geoplanidae (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida), also known as land planarians, feed on soil invertebrates, including other geoplanids. Observations of their predatory behavior in nature are scarce, and most of the information comes from food preference experiments conducted under laboratory conditions. Although these experiments are based on a wide variety of prey, this catalog is often far from being representative of the fauna that we can find in the planarian natural habitat. As some geoplanid species became invasive recently, an accurate knowledge about their feeding habits is now crucial in order to design plans for controlling and preventing their expansion. Using NGS data as a starting point, we perform a metagenomic analysis in order to identify the <em>in situ</em> diet of two endemic and co-distributed species of geoplanids from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: <em>Imbira marcusi</em> and <em>Cephaloflexa bergi</em>. The results show that the diet of <em>I. marcusi</em> is restricted to earthworms, whereas <em>C. bergi</em> has a generalist diet, including other planarians. Furthermore, both species change their feeding habits among the distinct sampled localities. When the same data are evaluated with different methodologies, phylogenetic-based assignment methods outperform those based on similarity. As a conclusion, the integration of metagenomics with phylogenetics should be taken into account when establishing studies on the feeding habits of land planarians and other taxa.

By:
Cristian Cuevas
September 18, 2018, 5:40 pm to 6:00 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Big questions big data symposium Type: Student Poster
 
6:00 pm   *An empirical approach to assessing methods for the phylogenetic analysis of discrete morphological data
 Attend Link

*An empirical approach to assessing methods for the phylogenetic analysis of discrete morphological data

Whilst molecular phylogenetics has experienced a shift towards model based analytic approaches, parsimony remains the most commonly implemented method for the analysis of discrete morphological data. The efficacy and accuracy of applying model based analytics to morphological data, particularly Bayesian methods, has thus far only been assessed using simulations. I take an empirical approach to assessing variously weighted parsimony and Bayesian methods by investigating the stratigraphic congruence of the trees inferred by them. I focus on trees of non-avian dinosaurs, as previous analyses have demonstrated that their stratigraphic congruence is high, and all leaves in dinosaur trees have a fossil record by definition. Dinosaur morphological datasets were analysed using a series of weighting schemes under parsimony in PAUP* and under Bayesian analysis implemented in MrBayes v3.6. Five measures of stratigraphic fit, namely the SCI, MSM*, GER, GER* and GERt were calculated using the package ‘strap’ in R. Colless’s index of tree balance was calculated using the program ‘Ghosts.’ Bayesian analysis gives the lowest median values for the SCI, MSM* and GER, with an implied weights parsimony approach (K=12) producing the highest median values for all measures. These results suggest when examining stratigraphic congruence, Bayesian analysis of morphological data is unsupported, and an implied weights approach with careful consideration of the constants specified should be preferred.

By:
Jennifer Ellis
September 18, 2018, 6:00 pm to 6:20 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Big questions big data symposium Type: Student Poster
 
6:20 pm     *Phylogenetic analysis of Scolia Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Scoliidae, Scoliinae)
 Attend Link

*Phylogenetic analysis of Scolia Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Scoliidae, Scoliinae)

Scoliidae presents approximately 560 described species distributed across all regions of the globe. Currently, the family is divided into two subfamilies, Proscolinae and Scoliinae, the latter being also divided into two tribes: Campsomerini and Scoliini. Their representatives play important ecological roles, as biological control of coleopterans larvae (ectoparasitoid) and the pollination of some plants species. However, Scoliidae is the most neglected family in Vespoidea and works on this group are extremely outdated and scarce. In addition, with a troubled taxonomic history and with constant changes in its classification, due the absence of review of the group, it is necessary perform a robust review for the family as a whole. Therefore, we conducted a work in order to test the monophyly of <em>Scolia </em>and of its subgenera (<em>Discolia</em>, <em>Scolia</em>, and <em>Hesperoscolia</em>). For a greater understanding of the group, we also used almost all other genera belonging to Scoliini in a phylogenetic analysis, because supra specific divisions are not well established and a broader approach is necessary. According to the analysis of the external morphology, the genus <em>Scolia</em> is not monophyletic. Only <em>Hesperoscolia</em> was recovered as a natural group. However, in the case of Scoliini it was recovered the following monophyletic genera: <em>Diliacos</em>, <em>Liacos</em>, <em>Megascolia</em> and <em>Triscolia</em>. Thus, it is proposed that the subgenera <em>Scolia</em> and <em>Discolia</em> should not be recognized and other new genera should be proposed.

By:
Ivan Fernandes-Golfetti
September 18, 2018, 6:20 pm to 6:40 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Open symposium Type: Student Poster
 
6:40 pm     *A mitogenomic approach to the tempo and mode of salinity tolerance evolution in Ochthebius(Coleoptera, Hydraenidae)
 Attend Link

*A mitogenomic approach to the tempo and mode of salinity tolerance evolution in Ochthebius(Coleoptera, Hydraenidae)

Evolutionary novelties may influence the diversification of new lineages, allowing species to colonize new habitats or to exploit new resources. One of the most remarkable traits in primarily freshwater organisms is the possibility to tolerate saline or hypersaline habitats. Recent work in some water beetle families (Hydrophilidae and Dytiscidae) has led to the hypothesis that tolerance to salinity is an exaptation to drought resistance. However, whereas in Hydrophilidae there are fast and direct transitions from freshwater to hypersaline water, as expected under an exaptation scenario, in the studied Dytiscidae all transitions were gradual, from freshwater to saline and then hypersaline waters. In this work we study the third of the main lineages of water beetles with species in saline habitats, the genus <em>Ochthebius</em>(Hydraenidae). We build a comprehensive phylogeny of <em>Ochthebius</em>, with approximately 50% of the ca. 550 known species and a combination of three mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. Despite the general good support of most clades relationships among basal clades was still unresolved, so we obtained mitochondrial genomes of ca. 20 species with a mitochondrial metagenomics protocol with the aim to anchor some of the unsupported nodes in the tree. We compiled ecological data on the habitat of all species to reconstruct the tempo and mode of tolerance to salinity using Bayesian methods.

By:
Adrian Villastrigo
September 18, 2018, 6:40 pm to 7:00 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Open symposium Type: Student Talk
 
7:00 pm     *Orange is the new white: Systematic revision of Antarctic Tritonia species (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia)
 Attend Link

*Orange is the new white: Systematic revision of Antarctic Tritonia species (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia)

Among nudibranch molluscs, the family Tritoniidae gathers several taxa with unclear phylogenetic position, such as some species of the genus <em>Tritonia</em>. Currently, 34 valid species belong to this genus with only three of them found in the Southern Ocean, namely <em>T. challengeriana</em>, <em>T. dantarti</em> and <em>T. vorax</em>. Here, we shed light into the long-term discussed systematics and taxonomy of Antarctic <em>Tritonia </em>species using morpho-anatomical and molecular techniques. Samples from the Weddell Sea and Bouvet Island were dissected and prepared for scanning electron microscopy. Three molecular markers, <em>COI</em>, <em>16S</em>, and <em>H3</em>, were amplified and analyzed through maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. These analyses and species delimitation tests clearly distinguished two species, <em>T. challengeriana</em> and <em>T. dantarti</em>, being circumpolar and endemic to Bouvet Island, respectively<em>.</em> Coloration seemed to be an unreliable character to differentiate among species since molecular data revealed them displaying both orange and white color morphs. This variability can perhaps be explained by different pigment sequestration from the soft coral species they feed on. Morphological analyses show differences between Antarctic and Magellanic specimens of <em>T. challengeriana</em>, thus, we suggest the resurrection of <em>T. antarctica</em> to encompass the Antarctic species. Unfortunately, additional molecular data from Magellanic specimens is required to definitely unravel their systematics.

By:
Maria-Eleonora Rossi
September 18, 2018, 7:00 pm to 7:20 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Open symposium Type: Student Poster
 
7:20 pm     *Determining the genomic basis of adaptive radiations: Comparative transcriptomics of convergent prey specialization in Dysdera spiders from the Canary Islands
 Attend Link

*Determining the genomic basis of adaptive radiations: Comparative transcriptomics of convergent prey specialization in Dysdera spiders from the Canary Islands

During their evolutionary history, spiders diversified into a large number of different habitats, sometimes involving dietary specializations to feed on specific preys. The adaptive radiation of the genus Dysdera in the Canary Islands is an outstanding example of diversification associated with dietary shifts. Some endemic species of this genus have adapted to capture and feed on terrestrial isopods, a prey with prominent morphological, chemical and behavioral defenses. These spiders show specific morphological modifications of chelicerae along with behavioral and metabolic adaptations that allow them to capture and digest these preys. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that diet specialization has evolved multiple times independently within this archipelago. To date, however, little is known about the genetic basis of such a remarkable phenotypic convergence. To address this question, we sequenced and compared the complete transcriptome of two pairs of closely related generalist-specialist (with respect to diet) Dysdera species. To identify putative parallel molecular changes associated to the observed convergence, we searched for protein-coding genes with significant changes in their functional constraints, including the footprint of positive selection, and/or showing differential expression patterns in both specialist species. Based on gene ontology annotations, we propose a set of candidate genes that could have promoted prey specialization, including genes involved in metabolism and heavy metal assimilation. Since terrestrial isopods accumulate toxic substances and heavy metals, such as copper or cadmium, parallel specific changes in these genes involved in their metabolism could have promoted the evolutionary convergence of prey specialization observed in Dysdera.

By:
Joel Vizueta
September 18, 2018, 7:20 pm to 7:40 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Understanding diversity through time symposium Type: Poster
 
8:00 pm       WHS Council meeting & dinner
8:20 pm      
8:40 pm      
9:00 pm      
9:20 pm      
9:40 pm      
10:00 pm      
10:20 pm      
10:40 pm      
11:00 pm      
11:20 pm      
11:40 pm      

Wednesday, 19th September 2018

Time Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Vestibul at Museu Blau Posters Off premises
9:00 am Fossils, time-trees and arthropod phyogenetics
 Attend Link

Fossils, time-trees and arthropod phyogenetics

Fossils, time-trees and arthropod phyogenetics
The Cambrian fossil record informs on the sequence of character acquisition in the marine stem-group of Arthropoda. Modern phylogenies of the arthropods predict that terrestrialisation has independent origins in the most recent common ancestors of all extant myriapods, arachnids and hexapods. Phylogenomic-scale analyses support the monophyly of Myriapoda and Hexapoda, and arachnid monophyly is also recovered under optimal conditions, implying a single origin of terrestrial adaptations shared by extant members of those groups. Transcriptome-based phylogenies offer support to new hypotheses for some of these adaptations, such as homology of book lungs in scorpions and spiders. Fossil-calibrated time trees reconstruct Cambrian divergences between the major crown-group myriapod and arachnid lineages, substantially predating the appearance of body fossils of these groups in the Silurian. The Cambro-Ordovician trace fossil record partly fills this gap, as do candidates for aquatic or amphibious stem groups in the Cambrian. Probabilistic methods developed for molecular dating permit comparisons of estimated rates of morphological and molecular evolution during and after the main window of the Cambrian explosion. A ‘morphological clock’ example using the wholly extinct trilobites builds and dates a phylogenetic tree for Cambrian lineages. This constrains the origin of trilobites to the Cambrian, negating an unfossilised history extending back into the Precambrian as many investigators (including Darwin) had inferred. The appearance of trilobites in the fossil record is recast as ‘flicking the biomineralization switch’ in the context of evidence from the trace fossil record and seawater chemistry.

By:
Greg Edgecombe
September 19, 2018, 9:00 am to 10:00 am
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Keynote Type: Talk
     
9:20 am      
9:40 am      
10:00 am *Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of Entomobryidae (Entomobryomorpha: Entomobryoidea) with particular interest on the paronelline springtails
 Attend Link

*Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of Entomobryidae (Entomobryomorpha: Entomobryoidea) with particular interest on the paronelline springtails

The phylogenetic relationships within Entomobryoidea were inferred by performing comparative morphological and molecular studies. Representatives of Isotomoidea (2 species) and Tomoceroidea (3 species) were chosen as outgroups, and 114 species of Entomobryoidea were selected as the focus of this investigation (63 species sampled for morphological data and 92 for molecular data from 18S, 28S and COI). Bayesian inference and parsimony analyses were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationships and the divergence times among the lineages sampled here. Based on the results, there is no support for the separation of Entomobryidae and Paronellidae, resulting the expansion of the scope of the former to comprise all extant taxa of Entomobryoidea. In the new classification herein adopted, nine subfamilies are recognized within Entomobryidae: Callintrurinae, Cremastocephalinae, Cyphoderinae, Entomobryinae, Heteromurinae, Lepidocirtinae, Orchesellinae, Paronellinae, and Seirinae. The initial entomobryid divergences were estimated to have occurred during the Permian, and the differentiation of lineages classified as subfamilies continued until the Late Jurassic. A biogeographic analysis based on the phylogenetic results indicated that part of the disjunctions presently observed in Entomobryidae can be associated with the breakup of Pangea and Gondwana, but disjunctions among recently diverged taxa require additional explanations.

By:
Fábio Oliveira
September 19, 2018, 10:00 am to 10:20 am
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Understanding diversity through time symposium Type: Student Talk
     
10:20 am The assassin’s tale: towards resolving the phylogeny and classification of Reduvioidea (Insecta: Hemiptera)
 Attend Link

The assassin’s tale: towards resolving the phylogeny and classification of Reduvioidea (Insecta: Hemiptera)

Existing phylogenies of Reduvioidea (&gt

By:
Christiane Weirauch
September 19, 2018, 10:20 am to 10:40 am
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Understanding diversity through time symposium Type: Talk
     
10:40 am   Coffee break    
11:00 am      
11:20 am      
11:40 am Continued adaptation of C4 photosynthesis after an initial burst of changes in the Andropogoneae grasses
 Attend Link

Continued adaptation of C4 photosynthesis after an initial burst of changes in the Andropogoneae grasses

C4 photosynthesis is a complex trait that sustains fast growth and high productivity and evolved numerous times independently. One of the major C4 lineages is Andropogoneae, a group of roughly 1,200 grass species that include some of the world's most important crops and species dominating tropical grasslands. Previous efforts to understand C4 evolution in the group relied on the comparison of a few model C4 species to their distant C3 relatives, so that changes directly responsible for the transition to C4 could not be distinguished from those that preceded or followed it. We developed a new approach to analyse the chloroplast and nuclear genomes of 98 grass species that capture the earliest split with Andropogoneae as well as their C3 relatives. We confirm the sister relationship between the C4 Andropogoneae and a rare C3 lineage from South and Southeast Asia, Jansenelleae. Most C4-specific molecular changes happened between 20 and 15 Ma, preceding the initial diversification of Andropogoneae. This was followed by continuous modifications of leaf anatomy and biochemistry during the diversification of Andropogoneae, so that a single C4 origin gave birth to a diversity of C4 phenotypes after 15 million years of continuous speciation events and migration across geographic and ecological space. Our study indicates that the outcome of adaptive transitions is shaped by prolonged periods of adaptation that ultimately contributes to the success of some groups

By:
Jan Hackel
September 19, 2018, 11:40 am to 12:00 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Understanding diversity through time symposium Type: Talk
     
12:00 pm Evolutionary history and diversity of Ceroglossus (Coleoptera: Carabidae): climatic changes and geographical barriers
 Attend Link

Evolutionary history and diversity of Ceroglossus (Coleoptera: Carabidae): climatic changes and geographical barriers

Past climatic changes have driven the evolution of different groups of animals and conditioned their current distribution and diversity. This is especially evident in areas that were affected by the most recent glaciations. <em>Ceroglossus</em> includes five groups of species of ground beetles, endemic to the <em>Nothofagus</em> forests from southern Chile, currently endangered due to deforestation. Their current distribution is limited by the presence of these forests and the ice limits during the Pleistocene glaciations.



In this work, we perform an exhaustive sampling of the different <em>Ceroglossus</em> taxa, and carry out phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses. Our results challenge the systematics of this genus, suggesting the existence of a total of 16 species. They also question the identity of the numerous subspecies described, and the usefulness of the morphological characters traditionally used for discriminating taxa in this group.



The phylogenetic analysis reveals that <em>Ceroglossus</em> species diverged during the last 10 million years, when multiple niches were created after the rise of the Andes. Afterwards, the alternate Quaternary glacial and interglacial periods caused radiations within each species. Phylogeography supply additional information about this process, unveiling how the different subspecies formed by dispersions in a latitudinal gradient following the glaciations. Geographical barriers seem to have played an important role in the diversification of the <em>Ceroglossus</em> taxa

By:
Alejandro Lopez-Lopez
September 19, 2018, 12:00 pm to 12:20 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Understanding diversity through time symposium Type: Talk
     
12:20 pm Reviewing some morphological evidence on Embioptera classification
 Attend Link

Reviewing some morphological evidence on Embioptera classification

Several slow evolving characters are evaluated here with the main objective of reinforcing the higher classification of Embioptera. An auditory chordotonal organ is described for the Order Embioptera where differences in shape and position according to taxonomic group are observed. Through the use of ultrastructure analysis on both silk ejector and various types of leg setae are also depicted within a taxonomic framework. The correlation of the new traits and their different conditions are tested by using the current phylogeny of the order.

By:
Claudia Szumik
September 19, 2018, 12:20 pm to 12:40 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Open symposium Type: Talk
     
12:40 pm Character composition and scoring, and outgroup choice, affect discrepancies between molecular and morphological phylogenies for Crocodylia
 Attend Link

Character composition and scoring, and outgroup choice, affect discrepancies between molecular and morphological phylogenies for Crocodylia

DNA phylogenies are increasingly reliable, with larger datasets and improved analysis. For fossils, phylogenies must remain based on morphology. Morphological trees often conflict with DNA trees for extant taxa, and phylogenies for fossils may thus not be accurate. In order to begin to address this problem, the homoplasy of morphological characters from a recent morphological crocodilian phylogeny was assessed against a composite DNA-based tree. Cranial characters were significantly less homoplastic than postcranial (p=0.05). Characters with correct scoring and clear state delimitations were significantly less homoplastic than others (p=0.01). A parsimony phylogeny from robust characters only with an all zero outgroup showed similar results to that using all characters, with gharial and false gharial as the progressively closer sister taxa to the crown. Using an extant outgroup (<em>Varanus)</em> and only robust characters, gharial and false gharial were placed together as the sister to Crocodylinae, agreeing with molecular data

By:
Roland Sookias
September 19, 2018, 12:40 pm to 1:00 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Open symposium Type: Talk
     
1:00 pm Morphological Datasets Fit a Common Mechanism Much More Poorly than DNA Sequences and Call Into Question the Mkv Model
 Attend Link

Morphological Datasets Fit a Common Mechanism Much More Poorly than DNA Sequences and Call Into Question the Mkv Model

The Mkv evolutionary model, based on minor modifications to models of molecular evolution, is being increasingly used to infer phylogenies from discrete morphological data, often producing different results from parsimony.  The critical difference between Mkv and parsimony is the assumption of a “common mechanism” in the Mkv model, with branch lengths determining that probability of change for all characters increases or decreases at the same tree branches by the same exponential factor.  We evaluate whether the assumption of a common mechanism applies to morphology, by testing the prediction implicit in the Mkv model that branch lengths calculated from different subsets of characters will be significantly correlated.  Our analysis shows that DNA (38 datasets tested) is often compatible with a common mechanism, but morphology (86 datasets tested) generally is not, showing very disparate branch lengths for different character partitions.  The low levels of branch length correlation demonstrated for morphology (fitting models without a common mechanism) suggest that the Mkv model is too unrealistic for the analysis of morphological datasets.

By:
Pablo Goloboff
September 19, 2018, 1:00 pm to 1:20 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Understanding diversity through time symposium Type: Talk
     
1:20 pm   Lunch    
1:40 pm      
2:00 pm      
2:20 pm      
2:40 pm      
3:00 pm E. O. Wilson's Consistency Test was NOT Le Quesne's Method
 Attend Link

E. O. Wilson's Consistency Test was NOT Le Quesne's Method

Le Quesne (1969, <em>SZ</em>)  described a simple ("box") method for determining compatibles (as they are now called)  between characters,  and he proposed basing inferred phylogenies on suites (now called <em>cliques</em>) of compatible characters.  But Wilkinson (1994, <em>JP</em>), Felsenstein (2004), and Scotland &amp; Steel (2015, <em>JP</em>)  identified compatibility with Wilson's (1965, <em>SZ</em>) consistency test,  and S&amp;S even attributed the clique method to Wilson.   None of the last three publications was correct, and S&amp;S in particular were apparently trying to make cliques seem reasonable by blaming Wilson for the clique assumption  -- the premise that each charter must be either perfectly free of homoplasy or else perfectly random.   Anti-cladists have often tried to promote that assumption, and their arguments have ranged from vacuous to fictitious/propagandistic.

By:
James Farris
September 19, 2018, 3:00 pm to 3:20 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Open symposium Type: Talk
     
3:20 pm Anagallis, a program for parsimony analysis of character hierarchies
 Attend Link

Anagallis, a program for parsimony analysis of character hierarchies

Characters in phylogenetic analyses are often logically nested. A morphological structure, for example, may be absent or present in a group of species being studied, and, when present, may yield additional characters. These may include absence/presence of substructures that in turn may yield still more additional characters, in a nesting that can be arbitrarily deep. In parsimony analysis, problems can arise when such characters are analyzed as single-column characters, problems that can be overcome by maximizing, over entire such character hierarchies and in a logically consistent way, the amount of similarity that can be interpreted as homology. In this, similarity has a precise technical meaning: an observed shared similarity between two species is a prior hypothesis of homology that is ultimately rooted in empirical observation. So maximization of homology amounts to maximization of conformity between observation and explanatory theory. As such, care should be taken that empirical observations are coded at their correct level of generality. Computer program anagallis (DOI 10.13140/RG.2.2.35111.24487) provides an easy way to overlay two-dimensional data matrices as classicly used with nested sets of characters that make up character hierarchies, and can perform tree evaluation and tree searches to maximize homology over such hierarchies. Using a live demo, I will illustrate the main functionalities of the program and analyze some classic examples with inapplicable data

By:
Jan De Laet
September 19, 2018, 3:20 pm to 3:40 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Open symposium Type: Talk
     
3:40 pm Revisiting the Linguistic Problem of Morphology: Why Semantic Morph_D_Base can make a difference
 Attend Link

Revisiting the Linguistic Problem of Morphology: Why Semantic Morph_D_Base can make a difference

About a decade ago we discussed the Linguistic Problem of Morphology, i.e. lack of standardized morphological terminology and standardized and formalized method of description. Here we report from ongoing development of a description module for Morph_D_Base (https://proto.morphdbase.de) that is based on semantic programming technology. The module allows generating highly standardized and formalized morphological descriptions using ontology-terms. The main organizational backbone of such a description is a partonomy, to which users can add all the anatomical parts of the specimen that they want to describe. Each part of this partonomy can be further described in three ways: (i) semantically and thus highly formalized through defined input forms, resulting in what we call a <em>Semantic Instance Anatomy</em>

By:
Lars Vogt
September 19, 2018, 3:40 pm to 4:00 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Open symposium Type: Talk
     
4:00 pm Fellows meeting      
4:20 pm Tea    
4:40 pm      
5:00 pm      
5:20 pm   Poster session III *Next-generation sequencing approaches elucidate the ancient relationships between tiger beetles (Cicindelinae) and other Adephagan lineages
 Attend Link

*Next-generation sequencing approaches elucidate the ancient relationships between tiger beetles (Cicindelinae) and other Adephagan lineages

Next-generation sequencing methods have enabled researchers to generate phylogenetic datasets containing hundreds to thousands of markers from a single genome. These large datasets can be leveraged to better resolve relationships deep within old lineages that have proved intractable using first generation sequencing methods which are limited in the number of markers that can practically be produced. Transcriptomics and anchored hybrid enrichment (AHE) are two complimentary methodologies able to generate large phylogenetic datasets. We applied transcriptomic methods to test phylogenetic hypotheses about the deep relationships within the charismatic group Cicindelinae (tiger beetles) whose placement in relation to the family Carabidae is uncertain. We generated 13 new tiger beetle transcriptomes and used eight other Carabid transcriptomes as outgroups to evaluate the competing hypotheses. Additionally, we used these transcriptomes to evaluate the ability of a previously developed AHE probe set to capture our taxa of interest. Using an AHE probe set allows for dramatically lower per sample sequencing costs compared to transcriptomes. Our results provide a well-supported and dated backbone for tiger beetles and provide an excellent platform for testing further phylogenetic hypotheses.

By:
Harlan Gough
September 19, 2018, 5:20 pm to 5:40 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Understanding diversity through time symposium Type: Student Poster
 
5:40 pm   *Hau‘oli ka'opu: Adaptive Radiation of Theridion spiders in the Hawaiian Islands
 Attend Link

*Hau‘oli ka'opu: Adaptive Radiation of Theridion spiders in the Hawaiian Islands

The endemic <em>Theridion</em> spiders of the Hawaiian archipelago, among them the iconic Happy face spider, were first described at the turn of the 20th century, and for over 100 years, no further systematic revision was conducted. Following examination of a large specimen collection, we discovered seven new species and proposed a new synonymy, increasing the total number of species to fifteen, redescribed former species and illustrate and describe several unknown sexes. Although most species are easily diagnosed by genitalia, we revealed the existence of ecologically relevant phenotypic traits, such as cheliceral teeth, leg length and body size that differ among species. We conducted a time stamped, multi-locus phylogenetic analyses that supported the monophyly of the Hawaiian endemics and traced back their diversification to the emergence of Kauai, the present-day oldest large island. Internal relationships, however, were poorly resolved. Interspecific genetic divergences among endemics were low, but molecular delimitation largely supported morphological species. Species ranges delimited from 50 years of field collections revealed many instances of co-occurrences. The somatic differences detected among coexisting species pointed towards the existence of ecological segregation. The rapid, in situ, ecophenotypic diversification indicate that the Happy face and its relatives constitute a new case of adaptive radiation in the Hawaiian Archipelago.

By:
Adria Bellvert
September 19, 2018, 5:40 pm to 6:00 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Understanding diversity through time symposium Type: Student Poster
 
6:00 pm   *A spider Odyssey: Systematics and evolutionary history of the family Dysderidae
 Attend Link

*A spider Odyssey: Systematics and evolutionary history of the family Dysderidae

Dysderidae is a highly diverse spider family, mostly circumscribed to the Mediterranean region. The family is currently classified into 24 genera and three subfamilies, but its taxonomy is debatable. The distribution of the species richness is highly biased, 80% of the species belong to just two genera, namely <em>Dysdera</em>(282 species) and <em>Harpactea</em>(180). All dysderids are nocturnal ground dwellers that actively hunt their prey. Cave adaptation is prevalent across the family, and some genera are exclusively known from cave-dwelling species. Our understanding of the origin and evolutionary processes within the family have been hampered by the lack of a quantitative hypothesis on its phylogenetic relationships. Here, we present the results of a target, multi-locus phylogenetic analysis, using mitochondrial (COI, 16S and 12S) and nuclear genes (H3, 28S and 18S), of an exhaustive taxonomic sample within Dysderidae and across related families (Synspermiata). We further estimated divergence times using a combination of fossil and biogeographic node calibrations. Our results support the monophyly of two subfamilies (Rhodinae and Dysderinae), but rejects Harpacteinae as currently defined. Additionally, the clades recovered within Harpacteinae do not support its current taxonomy, confirming that diagnostic traits at the genus level need to be re-evaluated. The origin of the family most likely post-dated the break-up of Pangea and cave adaptation may be older than previously expected

By:
Silvia Adrian-Serrano
September 19, 2018, 6:00 pm to 6:20 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Understanding diversity through time symposium Type: Student Poster
 
6:20 pm     Systematics of the Neotropical genus Yphthimoides Forster, 1964 and the clade composed by the genera Moneuptychia Forster, 1964, Pharneuptychia Forster, 1964 and the species Euptychoides castrensis (Schaus, 1902) (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae)
 Attend Link

Systematics of the Neotropical genus Yphthimoides Forster, 1964 and the clade composed by the genera Moneuptychia Forster, 1964, Pharneuptychia Forster, 1964 and the species Euptychoides castrensis (Schaus, 1902) (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae)

The butterfly nymphalid subtribe Euptychiina has recently been shown to comprise a great amount of non-monophyletic genera based on molecular phylogenetic analyses. Among these groups is <em>Yphthimoides</em>, whose distribution is widespread in open habitats throughout the Neotropical region, from Mexico to Argentina, and the genera <em>Pharneuptychia</em> and <em>Moneuptychia</em>. Using molecular data the present work provides a phylogenetic hypothesis that corroborates <em>Yphthimoides</em> as recognized today as been a non-natural group with some of its currently assigned species been more closely related to some non-true <em>Paryphthimoides</em> species. The analyses of male genitalia morphology also provided additional evidence to this hypothesis. This phylogenetic analysis also shows <em>Pharneuptychia</em> as sister-group of <em>Moneuptychia</em> plus the species <em>Euptychoides castrensis</em>, which is in fact a complex of cryptic species belonging to <em>Moneuptychia</em>. The dating of divergences point out that the split between the ancestral lineage of <em>Yphthimoides</em> and its sister group, <em>Carminda</em>, is likely to have occurred approximately in the middle to the end of Miocene, around 11.86 Mya and that the <em>Pharneuptychia</em> clade began to diversify around 11.35 (± 3.52) Mya, also between the middle to the end of the Miocene. Biogeographic analysis shows that the most recent common ancestral of the true <em>Yphthimoides</em> started to diversify either in the open areas of the Brazilian <em>cerrado</em> or in a combined area of <em>cerrado</em> and South Atlantic Forest.

By:
Eduardo Barbosa
September 19, 2018, 6:20 pm to 6:40 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Understanding diversity through time symposium Type: Poster
 
6:40 pm     Nomenclatural stability must justify para-/polyphyletic taxa? A phylogenetic inference for taxonomic congruence in the xeric clade of Pitcairnioideae (Bromeliaceae)
 Attend Link

Nomenclatural stability must justify para-/polyphyletic taxa? A phylogenetic inference for taxonomic congruence in the xeric clade of Pitcairnioideae (Bromeliaceae)

Pitcairnioideae genera <em>Deuterocohnia</em>, <em>Dyckia</em> and <em>Encholirium</em> encompass a group recognized as xeric clade, with more than 220 xeric species occur in South America. The species had a recent and rapid diversification, resulting in difficult problems of homology, convergence, and parallelism. Despite the lack of taxonomic circumscription and non-monophyly, the widely used generic classification shows a strongly incongruence with phylogenetic hypotheses. In short, classifications are still reticent to incorporate phylogenetic results. To investigate this condition and to establish the congruence between the phylogeny and classification, this work aims to perform the most comprehensive analysis using either Parsimony criteria into a total evidence approach based on widely-accepted principle henningian. A total of 133 accessions were included, corresponding to 109 taxa. The dataset includes 70 morphological characters (including anatomical characters) and ~6 kb from the plastidial and nuclear genomes. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using parsimony as optimality criterion following an implied (IW, K = 0.68–21.48) and equal weighting (EW), with and without gaps. The results with a well-supported hypothesis demonstrated the monophyly of the clade, but the three genera in its current circumscription, are para-/polyphyletic. Based on the well supported result, we propose a in novel a taxonomy classification to reflects evolutionary relationships.

By:
Janaina Gomes-da-Silva
September 19, 2018, 6:40 pm to 7:00 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Understanding diversity through time symposium Type: Poster
 
7:00 pm     Pinning down the origins of an island adaptive radiation using a combined transcriptomic and genomic approach
 Attend Link

Pinning down the origins of an island adaptive radiation using a combined transcriptomic and genomic approach

Adaptive radiation is a trademark of island evolution, usually explained as the result of ecological opportunity. With more than 50 endemisms on the Canary islands, the Mediterranean ground-dwelling genus <i>Dysdera</i> stands as one of the most extreme cases of island diversification within spiders. Inferring a well-supported phylogeny is fundamental to identify the number of colonization events and testing whether the island endemics constitute a case of adaptive radiation. Gene target approach suggest that<i> Dysdera</i> forms two main clades, one including species from the Western Canaries (younger islands) and a second with species from the Eastern Canaries (older and highly eroded). However, relationships between these clades and with continental relatives remain unresolved. To improve the phylogenetic resolution, we sequenced the transcriptomes of 10 Canarian species, and combined with publicly available data, we built up a molecular matrix of a thousand arthropod-specific single-copy orthologous genes. Transcriptomics, however, is hindered by the need of well-preserved specimens. To circumvent this limitation, we sequenced low-coverage genomes from key species stored in museum collections and added their molecular data to the matrix using the aTRAM pipeline, which retrieves raw reads corresponding to genes and assemble them. I will present a time-scaled phylogeny using this hybrid phylogenomic approach addressing an extreme example of island colonization and later diversification

By:
Jesus Lozano-Fernandez
September 19, 2018, 7:00 pm to 7:20 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Understanding diversity through time symposium Type: Poster
 
7:20 pm     Integrative taxonomy and phylogenetic analysis of the Protoneurinae damselfly genus Forcepsioneura (Odonata: Coenagrionidae), with description of two new species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest
 Attend Link

Integrative taxonomy and phylogenetic analysis of the Protoneurinae damselfly genus Forcepsioneura (Odonata: Coenagrionidae), with description of two new species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

Protoneurinae encompass fifteen genera and about of 120 Western Hemisphere species. South American protoneurids are almost all small sized damselflies living in numerous freshwater habitats of forested areas, including <em>Forcepsioneura</em>, an endemic genus to Atlantic Forest. From the eight species currently recognized most were discovered recently because of collecting samplings. <em>Forcepsioneura</em> belongs to a poorly-supported clade of six genera, along with <em>Amazoneura</em>, <em>Lamproneura</em>, <em>Roppaneura</em>, <em>Phasmoneura</em>, and <em>Psaironeura</em>, i.e., the <em>Roppaneura</em> clade. The monophyly of this group is uncertain. We analyzed species level hypotheses based on morphological and molecular data and undertaken phylogenetic investigations based on molecular data. Mitochondrial molecular COI and 16S and the nuclear PRMT markers were used for identify discrete evolutionary units at species level based on distance-based methods and character-based methods to infer phylogenetic relationships among species of <em>Forcepsioneura</em>. Two new species were recognized and described in an integrative approach, based on external morphology and supported by molecular data. A concatenated Bayesian Inference analysis of all markers supported the monophyly of both <em>Forcepsioneura</em> and the previous proposed light blue group of species. Our study correspond the first molecular phylogeny of <em>Forcepsioneura</em>, sampling seven out of the ten species and evaluated the signal of the used markers for the tested hypotheses.

By:
Angelo Pinto
September 19, 2018, 7:20 pm to 7:40 pm
Hall: Posters Track: Understanding diversity through time symposium Type: Poster
 
8:00 pm       Buses departing from Museu Blau
8:20 pm       Congress banquet @ Restaurant Mirabé (mirabe.com)
8:40 pm      
9:00 pm      
9:20 pm      
9:40 pm      
10:00 pm       The Banquete Speech
 Attend Link

The Banquete Speech

The Banquete Speech
Gonzalo Giribet is the Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology in the Museum of Comparative Zoology and Professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. He did his undergraduate (1993) and PhD (1997) at the Universitat de Barcelona, moved to the American Museum of Natural History to do a postdoc, and started a tenure-track position at Harvard in 2000. As a professional zoologist he has been interested in reconstructing the tree of life of a diversity of animal groups using morphological and molecular data, including phylogenomics. He has published numerous papers and book chapters on a diversity of topics related to invertebrate animals and currently serves as Editor-in-Chief for Invertebrate Systematics. Gonzalo is past-President of the Willi Hennig Society

By:
Gonzalo Giribet
September 19, 2018, 10:00 pm to 11:00 pm
Hall: Off premises Track: Keynote Type: Talk
10:20 pm      
10:40 pm      
11:00 pm       Music & dancing until 2:00, Buses returning @ 00:00 and 2:00
11:20 pm      
11:40 pm      

Thursday, 20th September 2018

Time Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Vestibul at Museu Blau
9:00 am From gradual change to catastrophic events: new integrative models to disentangle what promotes spatial diversification
 Attend Link

From gradual change to catastrophic events: new integrative models to disentangle what promotes spatial diversification

From gradual change to catastrophic events: new integrative models to disentangle what promotes spatial diversification
Evolutionary biologists have long endeavoured to answer which factors promote biological diversification. Why some clades are more diverse than others? Why some lineages are widely distributed across the Earth while others are restricted to reduced geographic ranges? Two different mechanistic macroevolutionary models have been proposed to explain the generation and maintenance of biodiversity. The "Red Queen" model (Van Valen, 1073) posits that diversification is driven by species-intrinsic biotic factors such as life-history traits, species ecology, or interactions among species. The "Court Jester" model (Barnosky, 2001), argues that extrinsic, abiotic factors such as abrupt changes in climate or geological tectonic events govern diversification dynamics, usually at biotic or global scale. The two models differ also in their view of the pace of evolution: gradualistic or continuous for the Red Queen model - which stems from Darwin and Wallace; catastrophic or episodic for the Court Jester model, which builds on paleontological evidence. These two mechanistic views of evolution have had a profound influence in the type of analytical models we employed to reconstruct the evolutionary history of lineages and biotas: gradualism versus punctuated equilibrium; continuous versus episodic models. In this conference, I will present new theoretical and methodological advances in the field of evolutionary biology to integrate these two views, which are only the extremes of a continuum

By:
Isabel Sanmartín
September 20, 2018, 9:00 am to 10:00 am
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Keynote Type: Talk
 
9:20 am  
9:40 am  
10:00 am Controlling artifacts in phylogenetic inference reveals invasive pathways
 Attend Link

Controlling artifacts in phylogenetic inference reveals invasive pathways

Human trade and migrations increasingly cause the spread of exotic species, whose identity and invasion pathways are critical to devise and implement control measures, or even eradication. Unfortunately, invasive species often remain misunderstood due to the stark impact of artifacts affecting sequence-based phylogenetic trees. From distance-based phenograms to long-branch attraction, the prevalence of distorting artifacts is surprisingly high. The relevance of controlling this problem is herein shown by the unexpected spatial patterns revealed through reassessment of phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses of invasive freshwater snails (<em>Pomacea insularum</em>) and clams (<em>Corbicula</em> spp.), terrestrial slugs (<em>Arion molinae</em>) and mosquito-borne viruses (zika).

By:
Cristian Altaba
September 20, 2018, 10:00 am to 10:20 am
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Understanding diversity through space symposium Type: Talk
 
10:20 am Unraveling cryptic diversity in earthworms
 Attend Link

Unraveling cryptic diversity in earthworms

The increasing use of molecular markers for the study of animal diversity has provoked a cryptic species (or lineages) discovery boom, particularly intense within soil fauna. This nomenclature has been given to deeply divergent genetic lineages showing no differences in morphological characters used in traditional taxonomy. Nevertheless, soil-dwelling taxa may mask their diversity in functional traits rather than morphology, which is influenced by adaptive convergence. Those additional traits will help unravel the functional meaning of cryptic taxa and will allow a more accurate taxonomic description. We will present an overview of the already explored attributes in earthworms that showed promising to discriminate taxa, besides traditional morphology or a limited number of sequences. Those include biochemical and behavioral data, chemical signaling, epigenetics, ecological preferences, unexplored morphological characters or deeper sequencing

By:
Marta Novo
September 20, 2018, 10:20 am to 10:40 am
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Open symposium Type: Talk
 
10:40 am   Coffee break
11:00 am  
11:20 am  
11:40 am The Bloodsucker Proxy
 Attend Link

The Bloodsucker Proxy

Beyond mere medical utility, recent advances have led to the development of tropical terrestrial leeches as a tool for studying biodiversity. In addition to broad terrestrial surveys uncovering previously undiscovered diversity in the Haemadisidae and better characterizing the phylogeny of the group, by extracting DNA from the digestive tract of leeches we can determine which vertebrate animal the leech last fed upon.  Because of their vast number, we are sanguine about the prospects for more completely characterizing protected forest biodiversity without hunting, without trapping, and without the use of scat or hair samples.  By analyzing the last meal of some 750 leeches from Bangladesh, China and Cambodia, the iDNA technique outperformed more conventional methods like camera-trapping, especially as it concerned detecting small mammals.  Deployment of this method in threatened forests of Madagascar is revealing similar patterns and yielding an imprioved picture of leech diversification on that island.

By:
Mark Siddall
September 20, 2018, 11:40 am to 12:00 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Understanding diversity through space symposium Type: Talk
 
12:00 pm Chloroplast and nuclear DNA exchange among Begonia section Baryandra species (Begoniaceae) from Palawan Island, Philippines, and descriptions of five new species
 Attend Link

Chloroplast and nuclear DNA exchange among Begonia section Baryandra species (Begoniaceae) from Palawan Island, Philippines, and descriptions of five new species

The Philippine island of Palawan is highly biodiverse. During fieldwork there in 2011 &amp; 2014 we found five unknown species in the large genus <em>Begonia</em>. The species are similar in their rhizomatous stems, four-tepaled flowers, inferior two- or three-locular ovaries with bilamellate placentas, and are assignable to <em>Begonia</em> sect. <em>Baryandra</em>. Studies of relevant literature, herbarium specimens, and living plants support the recognition of the five new species endemic to Palawan: <em>B. elnidoensis, B. gironellae, B. quinquealata, B. tabonensis </em>and<em> B. tenuibracteata</em> which are described here. The five new species were added to phylogenies based Bayesian analysis of nrDNA (ITS) and chloroplast DNA (ndhA, ndhF– rpl32, rpl32–trnL, trnC–trnD), along with 45 other allied ingroup species. A majority of the species show incongruent positions in the two phylogenies, with evidence of prevalent chloroplast capture. Our data also indicate a level of nuclear genetic exchange between species. The high prevalence of hybrid events in Begonia is potentially an important factor in driving genomic change and species evolution in this mega-diverse genus.

By:
Rosario Rubite
September 20, 2018, 12:00 pm to 12:20 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Understanding diversity through space symposium Type: Talk
 
12:20 pm The amazing ZalSa clade: a compendium of their phylogeny, biogeography and perspectives ahead
 Attend Link

The amazing ZalSa clade: a compendium of their phylogeny, biogeography and perspectives ahead

The 'ZalSa' clade includes the opilionid superfamilies Samooidea and Zalmoxoidea. Due to the highly plesiomorphic exomorphology most ZalSa taxa were originally described as Phalangodidae, the basal-most clade of Grassatores. Detailed morphological studies, mainly on genital morphology, and molecular phylogenies have played a decisive role in the new systematic arrangement of Opiliones. This 'systematic revolution' is visible in the ZalSa clade where many families have been re-diagnosed, newly ranked or newly proposed in the last decades. ZalSa has been consistently recovered in phylogenetic studies, nevertheless its internal relationships continue to change with the increase of taxon sampling. The results of previous and ongoing phylogenetic studies show an amazing and complex evolution in the Neotropics with several clades that could be recognized as a new family. Nevertheless, the phylogeny of old world Samooidea remains practically unknown with an undocumented high diversity in Africa and Madagascar. The morphological evolution is very intriguing, and several clades have converged upon various exomorphology characters some of them sexually dimorphic. The group is also an exceptional model for biogeographical studies with a remarkable ancient Trans-pacific dispersal event, disjunct troglobitic lineages distributed across the arid diagonal of South America, and lineages with Antillean radiations that serve as ideal subjects to test the GAARLandia land bridge hypothesis

By:
Abel Perez-Gonzalez
September 20, 2018, 12:20 pm to 12:40 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Understanding diversity through space symposium Type: Talk
 
12:40 pm Spatio-temporal origins of high-frequency calls in crickets
 Attend Link

Spatio-temporal origins of high-frequency calls in crickets

Adaptive radiations are major drivers of diversification triggered by novel ecological opportunities or opening of new niches due to key innovations. In the crickets Eneopterinae, the males use high-frequency signals (&gt; 12 kHz), which may represent a key innovation for the radiation of this subfamily and the first step of a successful new communication system: In the tribe Lebinthini, females lack phonotaxis but reply to the male’s high-frequency call by producing vibrations transmitted to the male through the plant substrate.



As for any adaptation, clues about past causes can be searched for through the study of the present state, but they can also be investigated by looking back at the past ecological context where the change occurred.



In this work, we combine calibrated molecular phylogenetic studies, biogeographical inferences of ancestral areas and phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate the “when” and the “where” of the origin of the new communication system in the Lebinthini. We gathered data about morphology, bioacoustics, habitats and time of activity (14 traits) for 42 species. For each trait, we estimate the ancestral states at each node of the phylogeny and establish the context in which high-frequency calls arose based on information about past climates, vegetation and communities of predators and competitors. We review the different causes invoked to explain the evolution of high-frequency calls and the new system of communication.

By:
Tony Robillard
September 20, 2018, 12:40 pm to 1:00 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Understanding diversity through space symposium Type: Talk
 
1:00 pm Phylogeography of the endemic Pristurus sokotranus and Pristurus samhaensis (Squamata, Sphaerodactylidae) from the Socotra Archipelago
 Attend Link

Phylogeography of the endemic Pristurus sokotranus and Pristurus samhaensis (Squamata, Sphaerodactylidae) from the Socotra Archipelago

The Socotra Archipelago in the Arabian Sea is one of the most isolated land-forms on earth and an endemism hotspot, with reptiles being the most diversified vertebrates distributed on the archipelago’s four islands: Socotra, Darsa, Samha and Abd al Kuri. Phenotypical, biogeographical and ecological diversity within the local biota has been greatly affected by the archipelago’s long isolation and complex geological and climatic histories. In order to elucidate the phylogeographic history and distributions of its common sister-species geckos, <em>Pristurus</em><em> sokotranus </em>(endemic to Socotra) and <em>Pristurus</em><em> samhaensis</em> (endemic to Samha and Darsa), we analysed sequences of three mitochondrial and three nuclear markers from 201 specimens. We used phylogenetic and population genetic methods coupled with species distribution modelling and phylogeographical analyses to determine geographical patterns of genetic variation and to infer their likely mechanism and time-frame. We revise the systematics and distributions of the two species, and confirm the occurrence of <em>P. samhaensis</em> on Socotra and an east-west parapatric distribution with <em>P. sokotranus</em>. Phylogeographical analyses support an <em>in situ</em> origin on Socotra during the Middle-Miocene, with a Pliocene diversification followed by separate dispersal events in eastern and western Socotra. The interplay of Quaternary geological and climatic factors seems to have contributed to the genetic structure and diversification of the two species.

By:
Karin Tamar
September 20, 2018, 1:00 pm to 1:20 pm
Hall: Sala d Actes at Museu Blau Track: Understanding diversity through space symposium Type: Talk
 
1:20 pm Concluding remarks  

Legend

 Open symposium Social Keynote Break
 The rhythms of life symposium Understanding diversity through space symposium Big questions big data symposium Understanding diversity through time symposium
 Registration desk open Opening and closing Poster session